Saturday, May 23, 2020

Native American Removal Act ( Indian Removal ) - 983 Words

In the late 19th century, the American people began to go west. Americans began to pour into the West because of rapid population growth and affordable land (Importance of the West). They were also promised wide open land and to be free of Indians (Importance of the West). The West was in fact not free of Indians, and there were several wars that ensued in Arkansas, Montana, Washington, and California (Youngs). On May 28, 1830, the Indian Removal Act was passed. It stated that the Native American were to be removed from the Southern states (Indian Removal Act). The act ended the Native American’s right to live in the states under their own traditional laws (Indian Removal Act). They were given the options to assimilate and acknowledge the United States’ laws or leave (Indian Removal Act). They were forced to leave their land, their homes, everything they ever knew or face the consequences. They were forced to go to a land that they knew nothing about, and hope that they would be able to survive where ever they ended up. When the Cherokee were forced to leave, out of the 18,000 that left 4,000 died on the way (Primary Documents) As a result of all of the death on the trail, it was named the Trail of Tears (Primary Documents). On May 20, 1862, the Homestead Act was passed (Homestead Act). This act stated that any adult citizen who had never borne arms against the United States government could claim 160 acres of surveyed government land (Homestead Act). The governmentShow MoreRelatedNative American Perspective on Indian Removal Act807 Words   |  4 PagesIn May 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act which forced Native American tribes to move west. Some Indians left swiftly, while others were forced to to leave by the United States Army. Some were even taken away in chains. Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States, strongly reinforced this act. In the Second State of the Union Address, Jackson advocated his Indian Policy. T here was controversy as to whether the removal of the Native Americans was justified under the administrationRead MoreAndrew Jackson And The Indian Removal Act Of Native Americans778 Words   |  4 PagesTyler Roush American Literature I Professor Wallace 06/29/17 Major Essay #2 The Cherokee Indians are one of the most well-known American Indian tribes here in the U.S. However, once the Europeans came to the new world and started to expand their territory, this did not bode well for them. Many tribes were enraged by the expansion into Native American lands. Even when the Europeans had promised that they would not encroach onto their lands. Gold was said to be on the lands of the Cherokee andRead MoreThe Impact of the Indian Removal Act on Eastern Native American Tribes2203 Words   |  9 Pageshighly interested in gaining Native American land and urged the federal government to allow them to obtain it. President Andrew Jackson encouraged Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act in 1830, which gave the federal government the authority to move consenting eastern Native American tribes west of the Mississippi River. It has been debated whether the Indian Removal Act benefitted or harmed the welfare of Native Americans, and it can be argued that the Indian R emoval Act of 1830 had an extremely negativeRead MoreDifference Between Andrew Jackson And Native Americans820 Words   |  4 PagesAndrew Jackson vs. Native Americans For what possible reason could our 7th president: Andrew Jackson has in his right mind to extrude the Natives from their home in the 1830s. Most historians say that Americans feel the need to emancipate westwards for the sake of the economy. Therefore the movement broke the promise that George Washington made with the Iroquois; which was generated to get the Iroquois to ally with the Parliament to fight against the French in the French and Indian War in the 1700sRead MoreThe Indian Removal Act By President Jackson1371 Words   |  6 Pagesas Manifest Destiny by John C. Calhoun and the message promoting the Indian Removal Act by President Jackson, which uses various appeals and logical fallacies to persuade the audience on the ideal benefits and optimistic virtues without the consideration of the Native American demographic. While expanding, the Americans encountered numerous Native Americans that ranged from a violent interaction to a peaceful treaty of removal in order to satisfy t he American’s territorial cupidity. Despite AmericaRead MoreNative Americans During Andrew Jackson’s Presidency717 Words   |  3 Pagesbeing taken out of your home and told that you must leave to a new, foreign land and leave the only thing that you know. This is what Native Americans during Andrew Jackson’s presidency had to live through. America was growing rapidly, expanding into the lower south of the U.S. During the 19th century white settlers moving into the area, were faced with Native Americans living on the land. These settlers were looked upon as a major obstacle for expansion of the United States. Driven by gold fever andRead MoreEssay on The Cherokee Trail of Tears1035 Words   |  5 PagesWorld came a whole lot of new problems. Native American Indians lived in peace and harmony until European explorers interrupted that bliss with the quest for money and power. The European explorers brought with them more people. These people and their descendant s starting pushing the natives out of their homes, out of their land, far before the 1800s. However, in the 1800s, the driving force behind the removal of the natives intensified. Thousands of indians during this time were moved along the trailRead MoreStarvation, Illness and Death of the Native Americans in Trail of Tears1352 Words   |  6 PagesOne of the greatest injustices of American history included, starvation, illness, and death. These hardships were undeservingly forced upon an innocent group of people – the Native Americans. One may think that the Trail of Tears was only a simple journey the Indians made to discover new frontiers. This is not the case. The Trail of Tears was the result of the white man’s selfishness, causing Indians to lose their homes and belongings. The act was full of unfair treatment, cruelty, and heartlessnessRead MoreAmerican History: Native Americans 829 Words   |  3 PagesHave you ever wondered what it would be like to be Nativ e American during the European invasion? In American history Native Americans were treated unfairly. The American government mistreated the Natives by lying to them and treating them as foreigners. After years of fighting for freedom the Natives did not achieve their goal for freedom. The Trail of Tears, being the most tragic event in American history, was due to the Removal Act in the 1830s, the misguidance of President Andrew Jackson, theRead MoreHow The Cherokee Nation Can Overcome Generational Ptsd1640 Words   |  7 PagesKristin Quick Term Project 3-7-2016 How the Cherokee Nation Can Overcome Generational PTSD. The Removal Act of 1830, that forced the Cherokee Indians from their homelands with just the clothes on their backs have created tragic effects which have continued to be passed down from generation to generation, causing a near loss of the Cherokee culture. In 1838, the United States Military utilizing surprise attacks, snatched Cherokee families from their homes, work, and play at bayonet point to face

Monday, May 18, 2020

Childhood Obesity A Growing Problem - 1378 Words

Did you know that obesity has become such a ‘growing’ quandary that for the first time ever today’s children are expected to have a life expectancy that is shorter than their parents (Gance-Cleveland, Gilbert, Kopanos, Gilbert, 2009, p. 72)? Obesity in children and adolescents has become a worldwide epidemic, increasing every year. In fact, childhood obesity in the United States (US) has increased to 17%, which has nearly tripled the prevalence of obesity in the last three decades (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012). Childhood obesity is a significant issue, with many of its adverse health consequences often continuing into adulthood. The adverse affects of obesity are associated with hypertension, type II Diabetes Mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and numerous other comorbidities (Gance-Cleveland, et al., 2009, p. 72). According to Cornette (2008), there are also â€Å"non-physical consequences of childhood overweight such as depression, social isolation, discrimination, and poor self-esteem, self-image, academic performance, and professional performance† (p. 136). These comorbidities, inevitably, lead to an exponential growth in obesity-related health care costs. As healthcare professionals, we need to address the issue of childhood obesity in order to avoid further damage to those affected, decrease obesity in our youth, as well as decrease the healthcare costs that coincide with obesity. This paper focuses on the multitude of factorsShow MoreRelatedChildhood Obesity. Child hood Obesity Is A Growing Problem1085 Words   |  5 PagesChildhood Obesity Childhood obesity is a growing problem in the United States. Childhood obesity is defined as a child being at or above the 95th percentile for the child’s age and sex (Dietz, 1998). According to the Center of Disease Control â€Å"Childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years. The percentage of children aged 6–11 years in the United States who were obese increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 18% in 2012† (CDC, 2017). There areRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Growing Problem1594 Words   |  7 PagesChildhood Obesity: A Growing Problem According to the African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development â€Å"Twenty-five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese† ( Dehgan 1) . The Center of disease Control and Prevention defines overweight as having a body mass index, or BMI, of 30. BMI can be found by dividing an individual’s weight by their height. Childhood obesity is present in children from ages ranging 6-18. The amount of excess body fat can lead to many â€Å"heathRead MoreChildhood Obesity: A Growing Problem795 Words   |  3 PagesChildhood obesity is a growing problem that needs to be resolved. Many people may say it is the Child’s fault, he is weak willed. This is just a common misconception; there are hundreds of different reasons for childhood obesity. I will just be scratching the surface of this paper. By the same token childhood obesity is a growing problem that needs to be resolved. We can achieve this by understanding some common misconcepti ons, understanding health problems, and understanding fitness. ThereforeRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Growing Problem1177 Words   |  5 Pagesquote from Richard Carmona says, â€Å"If the childhood obesity epidemic remains unchecked, it will condemn many of our kids to shorter lives, as well as the emotional and financial burdens of poor health† (â€Å"Richard†). Carmona is right in many ways. More than ever, childhood obesity is a huge problem in America today. This disease is causes health problems, emotional problems, weakness, and fatigue. Childhood obesity in America has become a widespread problem and will continue to worsen unless we enforceRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Growing Problem Essay1417 Words   |  6 PagesChildhood obesity is becoming an increasingly severe problem in today’s society. This portfolio aims to explain different causations of childhood obesity, and evaluate the interventions that have been put in place to combat the issue. In 2015, 15% of children between the ages of 2 to 15, in Scotland, were at risk of obesity, in relation to their Body Mass Index (Scottish Health Survey, 2015). For children, the BMI ranges changes as they grow and get older, as well as being dependent on gender. ForRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Growing Problem Essay1047 Words   |  5 Pagesinformation on Childhood Obesity. I intend to first plainly explain a clear definition of what Childhood Obesity is. Next I plan on explaining some possible reasons why children develop obesity. I also want to give clear consequences and life struggles that may be associated with a child who is obese. I also want to discuss long term effects of this disease on the individual as well as society. Finally, I would like to discuss some possible treatments associated with curing obesity in children asRead MoreChildhood Obesity: A Growing Problem966 Words   |  4 PagesChildhood Obesity: A Growing Problem Did you know the parentage of overweight children and adolescents in the United States has nearly tripled since the early 1970s? Childhood obesity is a rising social problem in the United States and affects many Americans. There are many reasons why childhood obesity is a problem in our society which leads to long term consequences. A few of the consequences include heart disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma, sleep apnea, and social discrimination. All of theseRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Growing Problem1083 Words   |  5 PagesA huge problem that we are facing in the world today is that of childhood obesity. It is a rising epidemic, not only in the United States but around the world. One study states: â€Å"OBESITY RATES HAVE INCREASED STEEPLY IN RECENT DECADES, with two-thirds of American adults and one-third of American children (aged 2 to 19) currently overweight or obese. Obese children are more likely to become obese adults, and obesity is associated with a host of chronic diseases, including Type-2 diabetes, hypertensionRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Growing Problem1816 Words   |  8 Pages Childhood obesity is a rapidly growing problem around the world, especially in North America today. The rates at which children and adolescents have become overweight have increased dramatically since the 1970’s leading to a call for action to try and reverse this growing trend (Birch Ventura, 2009). This topic must be addressed as today childhood obesity affects approximately one in every five children and adolescents across the United States. This issue is important to discuss because beingRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Growing Problem2416 Words   |  10 Pages Why is childhood obesity on the rise in America? Student name Instructor name Course name Date Childhood obesity is a growing problem in the United States. More and more young people are living with video games, televisions, and computers so are living their lives in a mostly sitting position. Few children are able to spend the hours between school and dark playing outside as they used to do and even less would choose to. Most children are trapped within the walls of their homes while their

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Drinking Age Of The United States - 1333 Words

While driving home on the way back from a relative s house, a sudden flash pierces your vision. Traveling 60 miles per hour, a truck smashes into a nearby Honda. The impact causes the death of two innocent conductors who had their lives grasped from them by a 17-year-old girl who was intoxicated. Even though the legal age to start drinking in the United States is twenty-one, most teenagers tend to start drinking beforehand. These teenagers drink more heavily than adults do; therefore, developmental issues tend to be a factor that may affect a teenager’s system if they drink throughout their lifespan. Although teenagers are aware that drunk driving can be fatal and can cause permanent damage, they recklessly get behind the wheel under the†¦show more content†¦Regardless, these magazines are attainable to people of all ages and can be a negative influence for young adults. The key factor that advertisers of alcoholic beverages should consider is that children can indeed come across these magazines. Young people from ages twelve to twenty are several times more likely to see alcohol advertisements than adults would during this time period (Hopkins n.pag.). Magazines and advertisements illustrate the consumption of alcohol and they try to enrapture the mind of chi ldren. Regarding this time period as well, teenagers of the 21st century rely on social media and advertisements in their decision making (Hopkins n.pag.). When a troubled teen has personal problems, they seek shelter on drugs and alcohol to get themselves distracted until they ponder about situations that they have seen on advertisements to help them forget or efface their problems (Hopkins n.pag.). As statistics show, those who are around the ages of twelve to twenty are more exposed to alcohol advertising than adults over the age of 35 (Hopkins n.pag.). Seventy percent of what industries advertise is more likely to be seen by teenagers instead of adults who are actually in the legal age to drink (Hopkins n.pag.). Multiple advertisements forget to emphasize the dangers of drinking in their articles or magazines. Equally important, if one happens to have a 0.08% alcohol level while driving, the person is considered to be

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The National Rifle Association of America Essay - 1159 Words

The nation’s oldest and largest civil rights organization is under attack, but why? That’s what is going on right now with the NRA and the issues that they are defending. Ever since the NRA was founded, it has been doing things to help out the people of this country and to shape the country itself. There are so many controversies that are going on today in politics that are the center of the NRA’s philosophy. The NRA does a lot for the people of this country by impacting the lives of millions of Americans, through its many organizations. Not to mention, the NRA is a non-profit organization and would not be able to make this impact without the help of others. The NRA’s biggest stance is the Second Amendment. It is their primary focus to do†¦show more content†¦These leaders contributed a lot what makes up the NRA and our nation today. The NRA today has many organizations that serve and help people all across the country. The NRA is the longest sta nding civil rights organization in the United States and a defender of the Second Amendment rights. One of the organizations the NRA supports helps wildlife conservation. This organization tries to open lands up to managed hunting. The NRA even uses some of their proceeds to rebuild wildlife species and habitats. Other NRA organizations involve different training programs for citizens and law enforcement. These help out with their use and knowledge of a firearm. This training that they provide will fulfill the training requirement to obtain a concealed carry license. Through these training courses, the NRA has trained over 10,000 police and security firearm instructors and 55,000 certified instructors who will then in return train about 75,000 other people per year. The NRA also has gun safety programs that are used to help promote gun safety to minors. There is an organization called the Eddie Eagle Gun Safe program that has reached over 25 million kids. They teach kids a magnitude of information about firearms, from safety to what to do in certain situations. As a member of the NRA you receive a wide range of benefits. You can receive things from insurance to magazines for just being a member of the NRA. Since the NRA is a non-profit organization you are probably wonderingShow MoreRelatedGun Control : Opposing Viewpoints1449 Words   |  6 Pages GUN CONTROL: OPPOSING VIEWPOINTS Introduction and Preliminary Research In a country where the people own more than 70 million handguns and perhaps one million automatic rifles and assault weapons, public opinion on gun control is understandably divided. Those opposed to gun control often cite the Second Amendment of the United States Constitution, which appears to guarantee private citizens the unrestricted right to bear arms; less theoretical arguments include the practical need for self-defenseRead MoreEssay on The Gun Control Debate865 Words   |  4 Pagesownership, including the National Rifle Association (NRA), hold. They feel that most people—excluding certain groups of people, such as criminals should be able to buy a gun with little trouble and without a waiting period. Also, they think that limiting gun ownership would restrict law-abiding citizens from protecting themselves from criminals and violent crime, and that people need to be able to protect themselves and their families. An article from the National Rifle Association Institu te for LegislativeRead MoreAmerica Has Too Much Gun Control Essay1095 Words   |  5 Pagessome people, but those people do not represent all aspects of the relationship of firearms to society. In the United States, many laws have been passed in order to regulate the use of guns by certain individuals, along with the establishment of associations that specialize in the usage and handling of firearms. With the regulation of firearms passed by the government, guns has become an integral part of modern society, attributing atrocities such as homicide with them, but also providing a portableRead MoreEvolution Of Warfare : A Controversial Topic1264 Words   |  6 Pages americans used rifles such as the Springfield rifle and the Lorenz rifle. The Springfield rifle was a great advancement for the Americans, â€Å"It worked well to break bones at nearly any range and could be lobbed a great distance with a propensity to bounce after landing- sometimes inflicting more damage ¨ (Sprin gfield Model 1861 Rifled Musket). The Springfield rifle was the widely produced and used during the Civil War, over 1.5 million across the then 34 states. The Lorenz rifle was not used as muchRead MoreNra1731 Words   |  7 PagesThe National Rifle Association (NRA) As George Stephanopoulos, a former Clinton spokesman once said: Let me make one small vote for the NRA. Theyre good citizens. They call their Congressmen. They write. They vote. They contribute. And they get what they want over time.(qtd. in The NRA is indeed all of these things, with programs to benefit a variety of Americans, sponsorship of one of Americas oldest sports, and as an organization that will stand up for its political beliefs regardingRead MoreThe National Rifle Association : Interest Group Essay1337 Words   |  6 PagesThe National Rifle Association Interest Group Paper The National Rifle Association is a very historic and well known organization which was founded in 1871. The NRA is widely known for protecting the second amendment of the constitution which is what gives people the right to keep and bear arms and very strong promoters of proper gun use. Sarah Horwitz, state’s that, â€Å"Today it is arguably the most powerful lobbying organization in the nation’s capital and certainly the most feared.†(AchenbachRead MorePublic Policy Analysis: Gun Control Essay1246 Words   |  5 Pagesofficials and national advocacy groups like the National Rifle Association (NRA), the Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, the Center to Prevent Handgun Violence and Handgun Control, Inc., political candidates, professional organizations, and the media. In order to build an agenda the analyst needs to understand how policy is made and how policy is implemented. In researching advocacy pages I was able to retrieve information on the mission of the National Rifle Association which isRead More Gun Control: Opposing the Removal of Guns from American Citizens1588 Words   |  7 Pagesof gun control actions that have taken place in the past few years and wonders why more action has not taken place because of all these incidents(More Gun Control). There have been estimates that America has the most injuries and murders due to guns than any other country in the world, and that America has one of the largest crime rates because of the fact that guns are everywhere and are in the hands of the wrong people(More Gun Control). The Brady Act has taken provisions in several states andRead MoreBowling for Columbine767 Words   |  4 PagesSchool, Colorado, Two students: Eric Harris and Dylan Klebald stormed the school grounds with two semi-automatic rifles and home made explosives, killing 12 students and a teacher, as well as injuring 21 others. The pair then committed suicide. This event was the inspiration for Michael Moore’s documentary Bowling For Columbine. In this film he tackles the issue of gun control in America and why they are so different to other countries around the world. Bowling for Columbine is a documentary styleRead MoreGuns Dont Kill People, People Kill People Essay example1357 Words   |  6 Pages Every year, all across America, guns cross the hands of various members of our society. Guns are legally put to use for the military, the police force, SWAT teams, or even hunters. When it is the military, police force or SWAT teams using guns, they are well-trained in their proper use and make responsible decisions that save lives. In extreme cases, guns are used illegally by large numbers of gangs, drug dealers, juvenile offenders, or other forms of criminals. These people do not obtain guns

Your development and Environmental Influences Free Essays

The personal development as a child had an impact of my social perception as an adult that provided me with a sense of awareness of culture. The family unit experienced at childhood provided a platform that interacted with siblings and a mother and father. The positive and negative relationships between siblings produced a challenging environment for social learning. We will write a custom essay sample on Your development and Environmental Influences or any similar topic only for you Order Now The atmosphere was unbalance that could also be defined as fractured during the most intense interaction with family members. The relationships between my mother and father provided a stern perception of leadership and organization within the family unit (Winnicott, 2003). The perceived leadership and organization model my parents incorporated showcased my mother very unsocialable and connecting to her children. This in part relationship created an uneasy atmosphere that limited the social connectivity with outside members of the family. An ongoing challenge for development was to take what was not given as child into adulthood. The relationship with my mother was focusing on the bread and butter of survival. Those areas of focus were keeping food on the table and a place to call home – that did not include a social connection with her children. In doing so, the skills needed to learn how to connect and interpret behavioral trends were not development as a child. The language opportunity that normally begins during childhood didn’t offer much of advancement. Mainly, the reason for the limited language skills was due to my mother being raised in a small town that had limited resources or highly educated people. Therefore, the need to expand on learning strong language was not encourage or sought after to better the existence of her children. The relationship with my father was limited as well as to develop critical social identity development that he was hardly around. The limited interaction provided a sense of loss to self identity and the self concept due to no real foundation developed with my father. The relationship was not a consisted bridge between my mother and father because there was no parallel universe of social building towards their children. Instead, my father felt that my mother should lead and make the decisions of connecting with the children to present a hard approach at all times. My father would take the occasionally approach to put his foot down but were more interested in other matters that centered on his existence. The family unit experience was a major deficient in the social identity development needed for the growth of an individual. The interactions between family members instill the psycho-social-culture environment that translates adulthood. The limited social building relationships as a child provided my teenage years quite difficult due to trying to understanding the definition of the human being. The combination of the relationships between my families provided an incorrect prism of the actual world that was corrected as an older age approached. The fundamental basis of social rendering is the understanding of how our family structure is one out of many ingredients to defining who we really are as individuals. In addition, the family unit is important only on the basis for providing an identity to how adults and children interact that are genetic related. This biological relationship poses an in-depth psycho-social-culture awareness to making sure the trends, styles; perceptions are embedded in one’s mind. Moreover, the benefit of the family unit impression on a child is an opportunity to redefine one’s individual perception on other people as well as experiences (Winnicott, 2003). The developmental psychology stage is crucial to allowing the child to grow as an adult with the basis of the family unit influence, however, the experiences later on in life provides a chance to create a new reality. The stages of individual’s development that opens up a perception windfall to present a newer understanding to interpersonal skills – that encourages the needed growth for long-term achievement. The benefit of understanding the roles that our family units play in the beginning actually empowers us to being able to restructure later years of maturity. In reaching the plateau of achievement for social growth is the number of experiences that human beings encounter that has additional impact as the family unit. The overall focus of what our mother and father did not do is not as important as compared to allowing newer experiences to redirect our mindset. The core vision to be focused on is the ability to learn the lessons that our family unit as a child presented and provide a deeper psychology terminology that doesn’t limits the journey (Winnicott, 2003). The most influential groups that assisted in the growth of social developmental growth is the church, community organizations, school parenting groups of development, and toastmasters. The organizations provided an opportunity to grow as child, teenager, and later on as an adult that empowered my mindset. The benefits of associating with the organizations provided a sense of what is most important to human growth – that learning something new that is different than something is a good thing. The overall perception also allowed a chance to redefine what was shown and taught as a child to create a different observation. The experiences as an adult introduced new and exciting individuals that opened up a wonderful projection to what was true and not a false pretense. Furthermore, the connection of meeting new people and experiencing new episodes of life provided a wealth of new understanding. The final analysis is that the key is having the willingness to learning a new perspective of social interaction that nurtures one’s human growth. How to cite Your development and Environmental Influences, Papers

Shakespeare - Relevance in the 21st Century free essay sample

Shakespeare is a poet and playwright that lived in the late sixteenth century and was known for writing well received plays. Even now in the twenty-first century, his plays are well known around the world. People may ask, why would a playwright from the sixteenth century still be the centre of attention in the twenty-first century? Many attributes of Shakespeare’s plays contribute to this enduring nature. One possible reason is the large spread of interpretations possible in Shakespeare’s plays. Another possible reason is the plays Shakespeare write focus on emotions that are universal to the human race. The characters in Shakespeare’s plays have very complex personalities and have a variety of interpretation. The combinations of these reasons are why Shakespeare is still popular in the current time. The plays written by Shakespeare are open to very broad interpretation mainly due to the lack of things that would be considered essential in theatre in current time [1]. We will write a custom essay sample on Shakespeare Relevance in the 21st Century or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These things include lighting, clothing and proper casting of roles. Lighting allows for a more understanding sense of mood in a play, allowing the audience to feel the mood of the characters in the play. Clothing shows the different rankings of hierarchy in a play as well as a sense of the mood of the character that is wearing the clothes. Proper casting of rules makes the emotions and thoughts of the character easier to recognise because the audience can use stereotypes of the actors’ personalities to determine the personality of the characters they are portraying. The broad interpretations keep the interest of the audience as they can imagine the different motives and thoughts untold going through the minds of the characters. An example of the different interpretations possible in Shakespeare’s plays can be seen in how people interpret Macbeth, a famous play by Shakespeare. The monarchist reading of the play shows King Duncan, the ruler of Scotland at the time as being saintly, where all of his actions were correct and any action taken against him was considered evil [2]. Macbeth was considered a sinner destined to die from the moment he committed the grave sin of killing King Duncan in order to gain kingship. In contrast, the institutional reading puts the blame on to the system of monarchy itself, stating that it promotes the killing of higher positions in order to gain the position for the individual committing the act. The institutional reading shows the actions of Macbeth to be expected of a person teased to an extent where temptation overtakes them. The broad interpretations are one of the reasons Shakespeare is still respected in the current time. The main focuses of Shakespeare’s plays are usually universally understandable emotions that people feel [1]. These emotions include love, hate, jealousy, passion and fear. Love and hate are two emotions that exist commonly in the world. Both usually contain large amounts of interest in a person and can end up with quite extreme results in some circumstances. In Shakespeare’s plays, these emotions usually cause the death of characters. Jealousy is similar to hate but different in terms of motive. In contrast to this, Shakespeare’s plays usually have jealousy and hate hand in hand and together, cause murder and other misfortune to characters. Fear causes characters in Shakespeare’s plays to act without much prior thought or motive and can cause damage to the character along with characters that surround said character. As these emotions can be easily related to the majority of the audience, it catches and keeps the interest. An example of the universal emotions in Shakespeare’s play can be seen in the play, Macbeth. In Macbeth, the majority of the primary characters face one or more of these emotions to an extent where they commit murder or some other act of treason. An example of this is the killing of Banquo. This is an example of the emotion of fear, as his death was not one that necessarily had to happen, making it a quick judgement without much prior thinking. Macbeth ordered assassins to kill Banquo and his son in order to keep the witches’ prophecy to himself so no one suspects him of murdering King Duncan. Whether this would have affected his secret is unknown, but the deed causes Macbeth to be very guilt-ridden and eventually causes his defeat at the end of the play. Characters in Shakespeare’s plays usually have very complex personalities implied through the strange variety of their actions [1]. Characters in Shakespeare can be easily influenced by events around them. These events are normally quite traumatic to the character and cause the character to think in ways that contrast their old way of thinking. This results in actions initially unpredictable via the old characters personality. An example of this in Shakespeare’s play is shown in the play, Macbeth. In Macbeth, the protagonist Macbeth is told his future by the witches where they state that he will quickly progress through social ranks. After hearing the prophecy, Macbeth’s mindset changes and he eventually kills King Duncan in order to achieve kingship. This violent change in personality would not have been expected initially as he was introduced as a loyal servant of the King. Some readings of the play suggest that the idea of murdering the King was always in his heart and the sudden position change to Thane of Crawdor along with the witches’ prophecy simply brought up what was already in his heart. Another example of a complex character in Macbeth is Lady Macbeth. Lady Macbeth is initially shown as a woman with a man-like personality through her monologue where she states that she would rip a baby from her breast and dash its brains out if she needed to. In the play, she convinces Macbeth to perform the deed of killing King Duncan and after the deed is done, says how she would have done the deed herself if only the king did not look similar to her father. Later throughout the play, she keeps acting stranger as the guilt of the deed finally faces her. By the end of the play, she had committed suicide, unable to handle the deed she had assisted in performing. The complex characters in Shakespeare’s plays are one of the reasons that Shakespeare is still famous in the twenty-first century. In this time and day, Shakespeare is still a famous playwright whose plays are known to many. The reasons why include the diversity of interpretations of the various characters and meanings throughout the plays, the universally understandable emotions that the majority of the audience can relate to and the complexity of the many characters in the plays of Shakespeare. To this day, and in the future as well, his works will still be respected as the magnificent efforts they are. Bibliography Anon. , 2010. Shakespeares Enduring Nature. [Online] Available at: http://shakespeareanscribblings. wordpress. com/2010/08/30/shakespeares-enduring-nature/ [Accessed 30 April 2013]. Jamieson, L. , n. d. Macbeth Character Analysis. [Online] Available at: http://shakespeare. about. com/od/macbeth/a/Macbeth_Character_Analysis. htm [Accessed 30 April 2013]. Mabillard, A. , 2012. Amanda Mabillard. [Online] Available at: http://www. shakespeare-online. com/biography/whystudyshakespeare. html [Accessed 30 April 2013]. White, R. S. , 1995. Shakespeares Macbeth. In: Horizon studies in literature. South Melbourne: Sydney University Press, pp. 8-9.

Friday, May 1, 2020

Case Study of Novo

Question: Case Study of Novo Hamburgo. Answer: This is an explanatory study with both quantitative approach and qualitative approaches. The investigators sought to establish how treatment with Garcinia cambogia affected weight gain or reduction in obese women. The researchers provided adequate introductory statements to build background for their study. They provided a widely accepted definition of obesity as an excess accretion of body fat following a disparity of caloric intake and use coupled with reduced physical activity. They also provided a linkage of obesity to metabolic conditions including dyslipidemia and type two diabetes. This is commendable because it shows adequate justification of the study. The studys attempt to link obesity and its comorbidities including insulin and adipokines are significant because endogenous processes of homeostasis are integral to energy use in the body and the consequent build of fat, or lack thereof. Vasques et al. (2014) aimed to study the clinical efficacy of the medication with the extract of G. cambogia with respect to enhancement of anthropometric and metabolic factors women with obesity, in addition to analyzing its effect on leptin amounts. The aim supports the fact that very few past scientists have conducted evaluations on the proficiency of ability of G. cambogia to augment lipid profile or its consequent effect on leptin quantities in humans. Similarly, most past studies concentrated on evaluating Garcinia cambogia affect weight reduction in animals unlike the current study which targets humans as study subjects. Anchored in the aim, the study hypothesized that there is a relationship between amounts of leptin and metabolic adjustments in human and animals. It was also hypothesized that hypolipemic effect as a result of the treatment with garcinia extract has a strong relationship with leptin secretion induced changes. Summary of methods used in the study The study recruited 60 obese women in the Novo Hamburgo City. The completion rate of the trials was acceptable because 43 women did, representing 71.7 % of the total study participants. All study participants met the study criteria which included stability of eating habits, not followers of low-energy diet and stability of body weight in a period of three months. Additional inclusion criteria included stability of physical activity, no use of drugs known to cause weight gain, good appetite, similar glucose and lipid profile and generally good health. Women with a history of smoking and alcohol and drug abuse were excluded from the study as those with cancer, diabetes type II, history of endocrine abnormalities and bulimia. Creatinine of 75115 mL/min, phosphates of 300 U/I and TSH levels ranging between 0.3 and 5.0 UI/mL were also taken into account. With the admission and exclusion criteria, the investigators made sure that all study participants were near uniform to avoid outlier re sults. The investigators used a double blind randomized study design in evaluating the pharmacotherapeutic efficiency of two months of treatment with day-to-day dosages of G. cambogia uniform extract (2.4 g/d). Use of randomized study was important because it prevented the study outcomes from ' inspired by the placebo effect. It made sure that the treatment group comprising of half the study population was unaware of what the remaining half was having. Random sampling applied to isolate the experimental group from the control group was instrumental in obtaining a representative half in either group. The daily caloric intake of the women was assessed (1903 453 kcal/d) after which an individualized meal plan is providing 1523 185 kcal/d was given to each. Upon finishing the month treatment plan, various parameters including anthropometry, lipid profile, serum insulin, leptin and resting energy expenditure were assessed. Patients dietary intake was also assessed before and after treatment usin g food diaries. Body composition was estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analysis for fat mass and free fat mass. Resting energy expenditure was determined using indirect calorimetry. Collection of blood samples was carried out to analyze for FBS, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride. Capsules containing 51.02% concentrations of HCA similar in color and shape to the placebo (containing starch and magnesium stearate) were given out to the study participants. The experimental group was instructed to take the HCA capsule three times just like the control group was taking the placebo the same way. The capsules remaining after the two months of treatment were counted to check for compliance. In many ways, the investigators followed the due procedures necessary during experimental study designs: they randomly selected the study participants and used placebos as recommended, thereby raising the reliability and credibility of the study results. Findings of the Study The results indicated treatment with a standardized extract of Garcinia cambogia does not affect anthropometric or calorimetric or leptin or insulin serum levels. Additionally, the treatment does little in affecting blood cholesterol levels thereby disagreeing with the hypothesis. The study disagrees with Mattes and Bormann (2000) who whose results indicated that treatment with G. cambogia extracts significantly reduces body weight. The results of the study are in agreement with Heymsfield et al. (1998) in which it was found out that garcinia extract treatment did not reduce the weight of the experimental group compared to the control group. In another study in which animals were used, G. cambogia extract posed endocrine effects on the study subjects. Hayamizu et al. (2003) documented reduced leptin and serum insulin following four weeks of treatment. This may explain the findings of the current study in which no substantial levels of leptin were to recording following the prolonged period of treatment. Additionally, the hypotriglyceridemic effect of the tested dosages got characterized by a 28% of TG levels in which case the effect appears to have been boosted HCA on the breakdown of fatty acids but not via leptin levels fluctuation because they remained constant throughout. The G. cambogia is majorly composed of HCA which positively inhibits ATP-citrate lyase and as such highly likely to diminish biosynthesis of fatty acids. While the treatment was given before meal times, it has a similar absorptive and distributive capacity to that of meals. As such, pharmacological inhibition of lipogenesis is mostly likely to be partly associated with hypotriglyceridemic effect recorded. As a matter of fact, the diminished lipogenesis can be correlated with calorimetric anomalies due to variations respiratory quotient suggesting a deviation of the lipid oxidation level. In another study conducted by Vasques et al. (2008), the investigators assessed the effect of the respiratory treatment quotient and resting metabolic rate in humans, the fluctuations in the calorimetric variables were noticeably absent. Similarly, a study involving animals conducted by Ishihara et al. (2000) noted a decline in the respiratory quotient when the animals subjected to G. cambogia. In general, the study results failed to agree with the hypothesis because no notable changes were seen liver transaminase levels as well as levels of creatinine clearance. In addition, there were treatment side effects including durst, GIT discomfort, rapid evacuation, constipation, nausea, and dizziness, among others. Well, considering there were no significant changes in the anthropometry of the control group relative to the experimental group, it is arguable that G. cambogia treatment for obese people is certainly not worthy trying. Internal and External Validity Internal and external validity are important to any study. The current study faces internal validity threats courtesy of certain changes in the independent variable that can be attributed to the observed variation in the dependent variables. For instance, the G. cambogia is primarily constituted of HCA which positively inhibits ATP-citrate lyase and therefore mostly likely to moderate biosynthesis of fatty acids. Whilst the treatment was given ahead of food intake, G. cambogia has a similar absorptive and distributive capability as that of meals. Consequently, pharmacological inhibition of lipogenesis is ordinarily likely to be relatively associated with the hypotriglyceridemic effect seen. Additionally, the reduced lipogenesis can also be associated with calorimetric irregularities due to changes in the respiratory quotient signifying a deviation of the lipid oxidation level. In addition weight gain or reduction, as independent variables, are also attributable other causes besides G. cambogia. For example the family history of the study participants seems to have been ignored by the study. Family history obesity ought to have pointed individuals whose in the study predisposed to obesity. With regards to external validity, the authors confidence in stating whether the studys results apply to other groups remains uncompromised. This can be attested by the fact that they were very explicit in stating that they have no conflict interest in the study findings. As such, it is possible that the current study findings can be generalized to the population outside Novo Hamburgo City. However, there is no mention whether the study tools were pre-tested. As such, there are fears that the results may not generalize to untested populations. Conclusion There are a few modifications that can be made to neutralize threats facing internal and external validities. Including the family history of obesity in the list of exclusion criteria could help screen out for participants likely not be genetically predisposed to obesity. Pre-testing of study tools could help negate threats to external validity. References Mattes, R. D., Bormann, L. (2000). Effects of ()-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables.Physiology behavior,71(1), 87-94. Ishihara, K., Oyaizu, S., Onuki, K., Lim, K., Fushiki, T. (2000). Chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate administration spares carbohydrate utilization and promotes lipid oxidation during exercise in mice.The Journal of nutrition,130(12), 2990-2995. Vasques, C. A., Rossetto, S., Halmenschlager, G., Linden, R., Heckler, E., Fernandez, M. S. P., Alonso, J. L. L. (2008). Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcinia cambogia plus Amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity.Phytotherapy Research,22(9), 1135-1140. Hayamizu, K., Hirakawa, H., Oikawa, D., Nakanishi, T., Takagi, T., Tachibana, T., Furuse, M. (2003). Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum leptin and insulin in mice.Fitoterapia,74(3), 267-273. Vasques, C. A., Schneider, R., Klein?Jnior, L. C., Falavigna, A., Piazza, I., Rossetto, S. (2014). Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women. Phytotherapy Research, 28(6), 887-891.